 Standards, in essence, are estimated prices or quantities that a company will incur. Variances may occur for both the variable and fixed cost components of manufacturing overhead. Before looking at the variances, a summary of the overhead information for Bases, Inc., might be helpful. The original plan was for 12,500 units per month, and the actual production for October was 13,300 units.

• Old equipment breaking down caused workers to waste time waiting for repairs.
• Could we calculate a production volume variance in normal historical job order costing?
• Other names for this variance are labor wage rate variance, labor price variance or labor rate of pay variance.
• In such cases, reducing the variances requires changing the system.
• Explain the difference between the accounting concept of control and statistical process control.
• In other words, they expected the production process to cost a certain amount and it ended up costing less.

Clearly, this is favorable since the actual hours worked was lower than the expected hours. The first entry records the actual factory overhead costs of \$364,000 and shows a credit to miscellaneous accounts. The second entry charges the standard overhead costs of \$320,000 to the work in process account. This leaves a debit balance in the factory overhead account of \$44,000 that represents an unfavorable total factory overhead variance. The third entry closes the factory overhead account by distributing the variances to the four variance accounts. In this section and the following section on fixed overhead, we will consider the equation approach first, followed by flexible budget diagrams and graphic illustrations.

Differential cost in accounting refers to the cost that a company will incur from two alternative decisions. Learn more about the definition, formula, examples, and analysis. Here is how you would calculate your material yield variance if you are a book printer.

## What Do You Mean By Labour Efficiency Variance?

This formula shows you how the number of items you produce affects your profit compared to your expected production. Your expected production may be based on analytical models or your standard production rate. A favorable variance shows that you made more products than you expected and will make more profit than you budgeted. The actual direct labor rate is not used to compute this variance. The total of sales mix variance and sales quantity variance will be equal to sales volume variance. Sales mix variance is one part of overall sales volume variance. This variance shows the difference between actual mix of goods sold and budgeted mix of goods sold.

Review this figure carefully before moving on to the next section where these calculations are explained in detail. The analysis of variable overhead costs in standard costing typically includes two variances, the spending variance and the efficiency variance. Learn how to calculate standard costs and variances used in comparing costs. Assume that 1,880 hours are worked at a rate of \$6.50 per hour to produce 530 equivalent units of product. The standard labor rate per hour is \$6.00 and standard time allowed to produce a unit of product is 3 hours. Labor efficiency variance compares the actual direct labor and estimated direct labor for units produced during the period. Yield variance is the difference between actual output and standard output of a production or manufacturing process, based on standard inputs of materials and labor.

## Variance Analysis Template

The following information was taken from the October financial report. A company’s mix of products they sell can affect how much money they make. In this lesson we’ll explore how you, as the manager of Baker’s Dozen apply this theory to meeting customer demands. MI is a leading manufacturing company in the the direct labor efficiency variance can be defined as which of the following? field of making jeans. MI manufactured and sold 10,000 pairs during the period. The management estimate that 2000 hours should be used for packing 1000 kinds of cotton of glass. It is a very important tool for management as it provides the management a very close look at the efficiency of labor work. An unfavorable variance means that labor efficiency has worsened, and a favorable variance means that labor efficiency has increased. The standard number of hours represents the best estimate of a company’s industrial engineers regarding the optimal speed at which the production staff can manufacture goods. Unfavorable variance is an accounting term that describes instances where actual costs are greater than the standard or projected costs. An unfavorable variance can alert management that the company’s profit will be less than expected. Valuing inventory is used to value the inventory of customized orders while standard costing is used when the products are the same for every customer.

## Bus105: Managerial Accounting

Analysis of direct labor rate variance is determined in two ways based on the value of labor, work, efficiency, and quality of the product. The manager in charge of production is generally considered responsible for labor efficiency variance. However, purchase manager could be held responsible if the acquisition of poor materials resulted in excessive labor processing time. Unfavorable efficiency variance means that the actual labor hours are higher than expected for a certain amount of unit’s production. With this figure in hand, management can make adjustments to overheard and other factors. The labor efficiency in hours is the difference between the total actual hours and standard hours. The total labor actual and standard hours were calculated as per step 1 and step 2 above. This is because the entry to WIP involves both price and quantity variances. Direct material purchases and usage are recorded and analyzed in T-accounts in Exhibit 10-3.

Explain the difference between the accounting concept of control and statistical process control. When actual results are worse than expected results given variance is described as adverse variance, or unfavourable variance. In common use adverse variance is denoted by the letter U or the letter A – usually in parentheses . Variances must be calculated to identify the exact cause of the cost overrun. If workers work overtime, it may also result in variance. This is because the overtime wages are generally more than the normal wages.

## Who Is Responsible For Labor Efficiency Variance?

A continuation of the Expando Company example is used to illustrate the techniques and concepts. Assume that standard overhead rates are based on 4,800 direct labor hours per month.

• Note that both approaches—the variable overhead efficiency variance calculation and the alternative calculation—yield the same result.
• The total of materials usage variance and price variance is equal to materials cost variance.
• An unfavorable variance occurs when actual direct labor costs are more than standard costs.
• This means that a cost flow assumption will determine which actual prices are compared with the current period standard prices.
• In common use favorable variance is denoted by the letter F – usually in parentheses .

In this approach, actual costs flow into finished goods. Then standard costs are charged to cost of goods sold and the variances are recorded at the time of sale. The credit to finished goods represents the actual cost of the units sold. One reason for using this method is to avoid having to adjust the inventory accounts from standard to actual costs for external reporting purposes.

## Labor Variance

You can estimate how many hours your employees will work based on how many employees you have and whether they are full-time or part-time. The unfavorable variance tells the management to look on the production process and identify where the loop holes are, and how to fix it. The actual results show that the packing department worked 2200 hours while 1000 kinds of cotton are packed.

• In this approach, actual costs flow into finished goods.
• Learn how to calculate equivalent units of production and their importance to generating production cost reports.
• Learn how to identify equivalent units using this method, and how to develop a production cost report as well.
• Mercy Pharmaceuticals purchased a large amount of inventory shortly before year-end to increase the LIFO cost of goods sold and decrease reported income for the year.
• In the two variance approach on the left-hand side of Exhibit 10-21, the Controllable variance is the difference between actual total overhead and a flexible budget based on standard hours allowed .

ABC Production Company uses standard costing system. The standard hour to produce a product is 3.5 direct labor hours. Last month, 400 hours of labor was used to produce 1,900 units. Let’s assume the standard for direct labor is 3 hours per unit of output and the standard cost for an hour of direct labor is \$10. Let’s say the output for the period is 6,000 units and the actual direct labor hours were 18,400 hours and the labor earned \$10.30 per hour. The standard direct labor cost for the actual output should have been 18,000 hours at \$10 per hour for a total of \$180,000. The actual direct labor cost was \$189,520 (18,400 hours at \$10.30 per hour).

It is stated that there should be some motivation, if you apply standard costing in your organization. Suggest several possible reasons for the labor rate and efficiency variances. Calculate the labor rate and efficiency variances using the format shown in Figure 10.6 “Direct Labor Variance Analysis for Jerry’s Ice Cream”. In this simple example, this variance shows ADVERSE variance, because the labor took more hours per unit and cost more per unit than the standard or budgeted targets. Material Mix variance is calculated as a difference between the standard prices of standard mix and the standard price of actual mix. If actual sales mix are more than the mix in standard or budgeted proportion, the variance is favourable and if actual mix sales are less than the standard mix , the variance is unfavourable.

However, the company can work to minimize the labor rate variance through proper planning and maintaining a cordial relationship with the trade unions and employees. Another way of computing the direct materials variance is using formulas.

The above formula uses output or loss as the basis of computing the yield variance. Yield vari­ance can also be computed on the basis of input factors only. The fact is that loss in inputs equals loss in output. A lower yield simply means that a higher quantity of inputs have been used and the anticipated or standard output has not been achieved. In this example, there is no mix variance and therefore, the materials usage variance will be equal to the materials yield variance. You have studied two types of material price variances.

Is the difference between the actual number of direct labor hours worked and budgeted direct labor hours that should have been worked based on the standards. Another key component of any efficiency variance is the basis upon which https://online-accounting.net/ the standard is set. For example, the number of units of direct material could assume the absence of scrap, when in fact a standard amount of scrap is normally realized, causing a continuing negative efficiency variance.